Introduction (NOTE: This is a very important chapter of the textbook.)
Chapter 6: Subsaharan Africa
Chapter 4: Middle America
Chapter 5: South America
Keep these in mind as you read and study EACH REALM (chapter).
1. Defining a Realm: Know the physical, cultural, economic, and/or historical criteria (characteristics) used to define the realm.
NOTE: THIS WILL BE ON EACH UNIT EXAM. BE ABLE TO DO THIS!
- Why are the boundaries drawn where they are?
- Are there any physical barriers (oceans, seas, mountains, deserts, dense forests) at the realm border?
- Are there physical, cultural, economic, and historical differences on either side of the realm boundary?
- Do the realm boundaries tend to run through areas of sparse population?
- How do the physical, cultural, economic, and historical characteristics of the realm differ from these characteristics of neighboring realms?
- See the Paper 1 instructions for a list of characteristec and see the table in the Instructor Notes.
2. Know where most people live in the realm. What PHYSICAL CRITERIA helps explain where most people in the world live (we discussed five in our online lectures)? Assess how well the 5 reasons explain the population distribution. Do they apply to this realm or not? Describe where most people in the realm live Do not say "in the cities". In which general areas are the cities located?
Apply the "5 reasons" we discussed in our online lectures to the distribution of population in this realm. Do they help us to understand the population distribution in the realm or are there exceptions to the "5 reasons"?
3. Know the vocabulary and the maps listed on the "ASSIGNMENTS: BEGIN HERE" Blackboard page for each chapter. ALSO, know EXAMPLES of the terms from the realm being studies. It is strongly suggested that you make a list of these terms with their definitions and examples. Each unit exam will have a question where you DEFINE and GIVE EXAMPLES of these terms.
NOTE: THIS WILL BE ON EACH UNIT EXAM. BE ABLE TO DO THIS!
4. You must understand map SCALE. Know the difference between a large scale map and a small scale map. Each unit exam will have a question about map scale.
5. Know the Koppen climate regions (A, B, C, D, E, H) and where they are in the world and in each of the realms.
6. Where in the realm has there been wars or conflicts including international wars, civil wars, guerrilla wars, and cultural conflicts. It is suggested tat you make a list of the conflicts in each realm including "who was fighting whom".
7. It would be useful to review the map quiz locations for each realm.
8. Know the general level of development of the realm .
1. WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?
2. What are the "4 themes" that we are using in this course to "define" realms and regions and help us answer the "why there?" question of geography?
3. In the theory of plate tectonics there are four types of plate boundaries: divergent, convergent, transform, and plate boundary zonesFor each of the following physical features found in the realms studied in this unit:a. state which type of plate boundary is responsible for the feature
b. briefly discuss the process that formed the feature
(a) The rift valleys found in Subsaharan Africa
(b) The Andes mountains
4. Know the letters and the general characteristics of each climatic type (Figure G-9, p. 13)
- Have a general idea of WHERE each climate type exists in the world.
- In which climatic region do we live here in northern Illinois?
5. On a blank outline map of the world draw the realm boundaries (blue lines in the map above) and label the 12 world realms. [This is just like the first map quiz.]
6. Use this data for the hypothetical country of Harperland to answer the questions that follow.
- GDP = $375,000,000
- population =1,000,000
- urbanization = 25%
- population growth rate = 2%
1. Calculate the GDP per capita for Harperland.
2. About how many years will it take for the population of Harperland to double?
3. Would this country be classified as a less developed country (LDC) or a more developed country (MDC)? Give three reasons why based on the data available.
7. Know the characteristics of More Developed countries (MDCs) and Less Developed Countries (LDCs).
8. Define "geography". Which two questions do geographers try to answer. Contrast the study of geography with the study of history.
9. Why do geographers use "regions (or realms)? ANSWER: to simplify an area.
10. Define and GIVE AN EXAMPLE of any of the VOCABULARY words above, especially the following:
- cold war
- centripetal force
- centrifugal force
- coup d'etat
11. European colonization has had a lasting impact on the three realms studied in this unit (Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle America, and South America). Discuss several of the effects of colonization that can still be seen today. Be sure to mention WHAT the effect is and WHERE it can be seen today.
12. Understand the characteristics of the the major climatic zones (A, B, C, D, and H) and have a good idea of where are found in the realms studied.
13. Have a good idea of where different religions are practiced and where different languages are spoken in the realms studied.
14. You must understand map scale. Know the difference between a large scale map and a small scale. It may be helpful to remember that a "large scale" map shows "large detail", but a small area. A "small scale" map show "small detail", but a larger area.
15. Know the "rule of 70" and how to use it.
16. Name and locate the world's ancient culture hearths.
17. Where are the world's major population clusters?
1. What are the physical, cultural, economic, and historical characteristics of the realm that differentiate it from its neighbors? Compare the realm with those adjacent to it.
2. Where do people live in the realm and why there? Apply the five criteria that we developed to the distribution of the realm's population. (1. near coasts; 2. near fresh water; 3. temperate,"C", climates; 4. flat terrain; 5. fertile soil.)
3. In what ways is the physical geography of the African continent UNIQUE? Why does Africa have this unique physical geography?
4. Sketch the climatic patterns in Africa (Know where the A, B, C, etc., climates can be found), also deserts, tropical rain forests, Sahel.
5. Know the major colonial powers in Africa and where they had their colonies. Characterize the colonial practices of the major European colonial powers in Subsaharan Africa (Great Britain, France, Portugal, and Belgium)
- South Africa - Boer War
- South Africa - Apartheid
- Rwanda (Hutu/Tutsi)
- Sudanese civil War
- Darfur, Sudan
7. What is the "Sahel" Where is it located?
8. Where are the major oil producing areas of Subsaharan Africa?
9. Describe Subsaharan Africa's level of economic development.
10. AIDS in Africa.
11. What is unique about the traditional system of land tenure in much of Subsaharan Africa as compared to that found in Europe and the Americas?
12. What are the problems encountered by "landlocked" states? Which states are landlocked in the realms?
13. Examples of:
- landlocked state
- regional complementarity
- irredentism (Somalia)
From the Introduction lecture:
IrredentismDEFINITIONA policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country. Irredentism occurs when members of your cultural group is a minority in a neighboring state (country) and you and your government put pressure on that country to assure that these "relatives" are treated properly.
On the map below notice how members of the Somali cultural group live in the surrounding countries of Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Kenya.
14. True or false? Africa is densely populated. Explain
15. What are the lasting effects of colonization?
16. What is the difference between the following:
- Sub-Saharan Africa
- Southern Africa
- South Africa
17. Define and understand the terms nation-state, multinational state, balkanization, devolution, and irredentism. Name some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa where these concepts apply and EXPLAIN. List the centripetal and the centrifugal forces causing balkanization or devolution in those countries. (Examples: Nigeria, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan, Rwanda and Burundi, Angola, Mozambique, Liberia, others.)
1. Why do the authors of our textbook divide "Latin America" into two separate realms? What are the significant differences between Middle America and South America that support having two separate realms?
- What is Latin America?
- Why do the authors divide Latin America into two different realms (Middle America and South America)?
- What is "Iberia"?
- Why is Middle America more culturally diverse than South America?
2. Differentiate between the following:
- Latin America
- Middle America
- Central America
3. List the world's major ancient culture hearths. Locate Mesoamerica. Major accomplishments--- Mayas and Aztecs.
4. Mainland / Rimland
- Compare and contrast Middle America's "Mainland" and Rimland".
- In your comparison discuss haciendas and plantations
- Locate the mainland and rimland on a map
5. The textbook says "Middle America is a realm of high relief [mountains], fragmented territory, and crustal instability studded with active volcanoes." WHY?
6. Does the Middle American land bridge encourage or inhibit movement between the two continents of North and South America Why? Where are/were other land bridges around the world? What is a land bridge and where are they, or have they been, located around the world? What is the importance of land bridges?
7. What is NAFTA and its goals and effects? What is CAFTA? Who is a part of it?
8. What are the islands that constitute the Greater Antilles? Know something about each of the countries of the Greater Antilles. Who is Fidel Castyro?
9. Know something about each of the Central American countries
- Chiapas, Mexico (Zapatistas)
- Nicaragua, Who are the Sandinistas? Which Central American republic was run by a leftist regime during the 1980s?
- El Salvador and Guatemala
- The Cuban Revolution
- The Mexican Revolution
12. What are "ejidos"?
13. What is a Maquiladora?
14. What is the political status of Puerto Rico?
15. What is the status of the Panama Canal? (Who owns it?) In which direction does it run?
16. Who colonized where in Middle America?
17. Where is most of Mexico's oil production located?
18. Name the 7 Central American Republics.
19. Where is most of the population concentrated? Why there?
20. Why is there a large population of Asian people in the Caribbean?
1. Know which ethnic group is dominant in throughout South America.
2. Know the generalized model of a Latin American City. Be able to locate and name each sector on the diagram.
- Elite Residential Sector
- Zone of Maturity
- Zone of IN SITU Accretion
- Zone of Peripheral Squatter Settlements
3. List characteristics of each of the altitudinal zones found in continental Middle America and along the western margin of South America
- Colombia: "La Violencia" and the "insurgent state"
- Argentina: Falklands War
- Paraguay / Argentina / Brazil : "Triple Frontier"
- Peru: Sendero Luminoso
5. Where are the major oil producing areas of South America?
6. If you fly straight south from Chicago, over what countries in South America will you pass?
7. What is a "cartogram" ?
8. How does the size and population of Brazil compare with that of all of South America?
9. How does the urbanization rate of the South American Realm compare to the rest of the world?
10. What are the "Guianas"?
11. Who are Hugo Chavez, Juan Peron, Liuz Inacio Lula da Silva?
- Define the term "altiplano". Locate it on a map of South America.
- Give an example of an elongated country and a compact country in South America.
- Give an example of a landlocked country in South America.
- Guianas: Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname. What is the language spoken there? Who colonize these countries?
- What are Mercosur, NAFTA, FTAA?
- Major achievements of the Incas.
- How and when did the Spaniards conquer the Incas?
- How did the Portuguese and the Spaniards resolve their 15th century disputes over South America? (i.e. what is the Treaty of Tordesillas?)