Keep these in mind as you read and study EACH REALM (chapter).
1. Defining a Realm: Know the physical, cultural, economic, and/or historical criteria (characteristics) used to define the realm.
NOTE: THIS WILL BE ON EACH UNIT EXAM. BE ABLE TO DO THIS!
- Why are the boundaries drawn where they are?
- Are there any physical barriers (oceans, seas, mountains, deserts, dense forests) at the realm border?
- Are there physical, cultural, economic, and historical differences on either side of the realm boundary?
- Do the realm boundaries tend to run through areas of sparse population?
- How do the physical, cultural, economic, and historical characteristics of the realm differ from these characteristics of neighboring realms?
- You may want to do the following FOR EACH REALM to help your learning:
- print this realm worksheet and keep track of the characteristics in the chart as you read and study the chapter.
- You may want to review the lecture on REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY]
- Use the maps in your textbook and at the following site to learn the major differences between the world realms
- Here are SOME of the physical, cultural, economic, and historical characteristics that you should consider
- physical geography
- major features
- physical barriers at the realm boundaries like oceans, seas, mountains, deserts, rain forests, etc.
- cultural geography
- economic geography
- level of development - IMPORTANT: SEE TABLE G-1 (pp. 34-41)
- % labor in primary activities
- % urbanization
- other measures of development - IMPORTANT: SEE TABLE G-1 (pp. 34-41)
- historical Geography
- culture hearths
- colonization - who colonized
2. Know where most people live in the realm. What PHYSICAL CRITERIA helps explain where most people in the world live (we discussed five in our online lectures)? Assess how well the 5 reasons explain the population distribution. Do they apply to this realm or not? Describe where most people in the realm live Do not say "in the cities". In which general areas are the cities located?
Apply the "5 reasons" we discussed in our online lectures to the distribution of population in this realm. Do they help us to understand the population distribution in the realm or are there exceptions to the "5 reasons"?
3. Know the CONCEPTS, IDEAS, and TERMS listed on the first page of each chapter AND the italicized words within the chapter. ALSO, know EXAMPLES of the terms from the realm being studies. It is strongly suggested that you make a list of these terms with their definitions and examples. Each unit exam will have a question where you DEFINE and GIVE EXAMPLES of these terms.
The textbook website has a webpage that will help you learn the definitions of some of these words. See:
NOTE: THIS WILL BE ON EACH UNIT EXAM. BE ABLE TO DO THIS!
4. You must understand map SCALE. Know the difference between a large scale map and a small scale map. Each unit exam will have a question about map scale. See Figure G-3. page 8, of the textbook and read the paragraph on page 7.
5. Where in the realm has there been wars or conflicts including international wars, civil wars, guerrilla wars, and cultural conflicts. It is suggested tat you make a list of the conflicts in each realm including "who was fighting whom".
6. It would be useful to review the map quiz locations for each realm.
7. Know the general level of development of the realm .
8. Have a good idea of the primary religions in the various countries in these realms
9. Have a good idea of the primary colonial powers in the various countries in these realms.
10. Be able to draw the realm borders on a blank outline map.
For the following conflicts know:
Australia / Pacific
Large Scale (large detail but small area)
Small Scale (small detail but large area)
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY1. What is the "Eurasian continent" and "European Russia"?
2. On a blank outline map label the four major physical landscapes of Europe. (See figure 1-4 on page 47.)
3. Where is the eastern border of the European realm? What is the physical geography of this boundary (mountains, deserts, seas, etc.)? Is this boundary a physical barrier to transportation and migration?
4. Where is the Iberian Peninsula?
CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY1. Why was the eastern border of the realm placed where it was? (see map below) Why have the authors of our textbook "moved" the boundary of the European realm further east to include Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, the Ukraine, and Moldova? (see map: The Soviet-era boundary is the thick red line. The current boundary is the thick black line.)
2. Define the terms "state", "nation", "nation-state" and "multicultural state" using examples from the European realm.
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY1. How does the European realm rank compared to other realms on the common measures of economic development? [See table G-1]
2. Three geographic characteristics of the European realm that have offered its countries "maximum efficiency for contact with the rest of the world" are listed below. How have these characteristics affected the econonomic development of Europe?
- Europes "relative location, at the heart of the land hemisphere (see map below)
- Europe is a "peninsula of peninsulas" which "creates maximum efficiency for contact with much of the rest of the world".
- Europe's relatively small size (see map below)
NOTE: the map above is a Mercator projection which enlarges areas near the north and south poles. . Greenland is really about the size of Mexico.
3. Define the three principles of spatial interaction using examples from the European realm.
- complementarity (example?)
- rtransferability (example?)
- intervening opportunity (example?)
4. What are the EU and the EMUand how have they affected the daily lives of its member countries' citizen? How many countries belong the EU today?
5. On the outline map of Europe below indicate Europe's CORE AREA.
6. Which country has Europe's largest population and most powerful economy?
HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY1. What are the "Three Revolutions of Modernizing Europe"?. Discuss.
2. Where were the following in the European realm?
- Ottman Empire
ALSO:1) The Marshall Plan.
2) Define the following terms: BENELUX and EFTA.
3) Main characteristics of the European countries. For example:
- Which country has practiced strict neutrality in Europe? SWITZERLAND
- Where are the headquarters of the EU located? BRUSSELS, BELGIUM
- Southern Italy is known as? MEZZOGIORNO
- Name of the island located between Turkey and Greece. CYPRUS
- How many languages do they speak in Austria? ONE - GERMAN
- How many languages do they speak in Switzerland? THREE MAJOR LANGUAGES - GERMAN, FRENCH, ITALIAN, AND RHAETO-ROMANSCH
4) Define conurbation. What is the Randsat?
5) What is meant by the term balkanization? Why is the eastern region of Europe so often called a shatter belt? Which countries constitute this region?
6) How was former Yugoslavia organized under communist rule?. Name the five independent entities of former Yugoslavia. Why was Slovenia the most successful state to secede from former Yugoslavia?
7) Compare and contrast Europes major supranational organizations: NATO and the EU. How are they similar and how are they different?
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY1. On a blank outline map outline the Russian realm AND label the major physiographic features of Russia
2. What is the "Eurasian continent" and "European Russia"?
3. Where does Russia have a port through which they can access the Atlantic Ocean?
4. Which four countries make up the "Russian Realm" as defined by our authors?
5. How does the concept of "continentality" as it applies to the Russian Realm?
6. What is the difference between "climate" and "weather"?
7. What is "Russia's Freezer"?
8. What do the following cities have in common, Murmansk, Arkhangel, Vladivostok, St. Petersburg, Odesa? [They are all port cities.]
CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY1. Does Russia have a unitary state political system or a federal political system? Explain. Also, what are some of the PROBLEMS that Russian is facing operating under such a system?
2. Compare Mackinder's heartland theory with Spykman's rimland theory.
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY1. How does the Russian realm rank compared to other realms on the common measures of economic development?
2. Discuss the "Soviet Economic Framework" using the following terms in your discussion: central planning, communism, collectivization, command economy.
3. On the map below locate the Russian CORE area.
4. Why are Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan included in the Russian Realm? How have these countries fared since independence?
HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY1. Why was Czarist Russia considered an "empire"? How did the Russian Empire differ from the empires of European countries like Great Britain and France?
2. Describe life in precommunist, czarist, Russia.
3. Discuss the "Russian Revolution" and the U. S. S. R.
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY1. On a blank outline map label the major physiographic features of North America.
2. On the map in the question above, show where you might find a RAIN SHADOW effect.
3. Describe the spatial distribution of North America's climate and precipitation. What is "continentality"?
4. Describe the ECUMENE of Canada.
CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY1. What is "Nunavut"?
2. Briefly discuss the attempts by the Province of Quebec to separate from Canada.
3. Would the United States be called a "nation-state" or a "multinational state"? Why?
4. Briefly describe the spatial distribution of Native Americans, Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and Asian Americans.
5. What ae the major languages of North America?
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY1. How does the North American realm rank compared to other realms on the common measures of economic development?
2. What is NAFTA and what does it have to do with Kenichi Ohmae's concept of a "regional state"?
3. What are primary activities, secondary activities, tertiary activities, and quaternary activities?
4. What percent of the labor force of the United States works in primary activities?
5. What percent of North Americans live in urban areas?
6. Compare von Thunen's, model of agricultural zones (see below) with the graph of "Agricultural Regions of the United States" (see textbook, figure 3-15, p. 157). Does the von Thunen model help (at least a little) to explain the spatial distribution of agricultural regions in the United States? (see textbook!!).
7. Describe WHY North America's manufacturing belt arose where it did and describe the spatial changes that are occurring now.
8. Discuss the "Four Spatial Economic Changes" that have occurred in North America (See Online Lecture)
- Population Distribution
- Urban Structure
- Economic Activity
9. What is NAFTA and what does it have to do with Kenichi Ohmae's concept of a "regional state"?
HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY1. Who were the major European colonial powers in North America?
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY1. On a blank outline map label the major physiographic and climatic regions of Australia
2. What are "biogeography" and "Weber's Line"?
3. Australia compares in size to the United States, China, and Brazil, yet, while our authors divide the US into seven regions and China into three regions and Brazil into six subregions, BUT the Austral Realm is only divided into two regions: Australia and New Zealand. why don't our authors divide this realm into more culture regions?
CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY1. Discuss the current political and economic issues involving the Australian Aborigines.
2. Discuss the current political and economic issues involving the Maori people of New Zealand.
3. What are "eugenic" immigration policies and what do they have to do with the "Asianization" of Australia (pp. 552-553)?.
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY1. On the map below, locate Australia's core area(s). What are the physical characteristics that help explain why it is there?
2. How does Australia compare economically with neighboring realms (Southeast Asia, East Asia, the Pacific Realm)? See textbook and table G-1. Be sure to discuss some of the most used measures of economic development.
3. Briefly discuss similarities in the economics and economic development of Australia and New Zealand. Also discuss "import-substitution industries and "peripheral development".
HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY1. When and how did the aborigines get to Australia? When and why did the first European settlers come to Australia?
1. Defining the realma. On the outline map below DRAW the borders of the realm
b. Briefly discuss the physical, cultural, economic, and historical characteristics of the realm
2. Compare and contrast High-Island Culture and Low-Island culture
3. Locate the three regions of the Pacific Realm (Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia) an outline map of the realm and list characteristics of each.a. Locate Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia:
b. Briefly describe, compare and contrast the three regions of the Pacific Realm: